N2 p1297 to He. 8.8. “I. The Eight Covenants Summary: [This is all copied in The New Covenant file.] “I. The Eight Covenants, Summary: (1) The Edenic Covenant Cmt. on Ge 1:26conditioned the life of man in innocency. (2) The Adamic Covenant Cmt. on Ge 3:14 conditions the life of fallen man and gives promise of a Redeemer. (3) The Noahic Covenant Cmt. on Ge 9:1. establishes the principle of human government. (4) The Abrahamic Covenant Cmt. on Ge 15:18 founds the nation of Israel, and confirms, with specific additions, the Adamic promise of redemption. (5) The Mosaic Covenant Cmt. on Ex 19:25. condemns all men, ‘for that all have sinned.’ (6) The Palestinian Covenant Cmt. on De 30:3 secures the final restoration and conversion of Israel. (7) The Davidic Covenant Cmt. on 2Sa 7:16 establishes the perpetuity of the Davidic family (fulfilled in Christ, Mt 1:1; Lu 1:31-33; Ro 1:3 and of the Davidic kingdom, over Israel, and over the whole earth; to be fulfilled in and by Christ 2Sa 7:8-17; Zec 12:8; Lu 1:31-33; Ac 15:14-17; 1Co 15:24. (8) The New covenant rests upon the sacrifice of Christ, and secures the eternal blessedness, under the Abrahamic Covenant Ga 3:13-29 of all who believe. It is absolutely unconditional, and, since no responsibility is by it committed to man, it is final and irreversible.
“II. The relation of Christ to the eight covenants is as follows: (1) To the Edenic Covenant, Christ, as the ‘second Man,’ the ‘last Adam’ 1Co 15:45-47 takes the place over all things which the first Adam lost Col 2:10; Heb 2:7-8. (2) He is the ‘Seed of the woman’ of the Adamic Covenant Ge 3:15; Joh 12:31; 1Jo 3:8; Ga 4:4; Re 20:10 and fulfilled its conditions of toil Mr 6:3 and obedience. (3) As the greatest son of Shem, in Him was fulfilled supremely the promise to Shem in the Noahic Covenant. Col 2:9. (4) He is the “Seed to whom the promises were made” in the Abrahamic Covenant; the son of Abraham obedient unto death Ge 22:18; Ga 3:16; Php 2:8. (5) He lived sinlessly under the Mosaic covenant and bore for us its curse. Ga 3:10-13. (6) He lived obediently as a Jew in the land under the Palestinian Covenant, and will yet perform it gracious promises De 28:1-30:9. (7) He is the ‘Seed,’ ‘Heir,’ and ‘King’ under the Davidic Covenant Mt 1:1; Lu 1:31-33. (8) His sacrifice is the foundation of the New Covenant Mt 26:28; 1Co 11:25.”
N1 p1199 to Romans 7:6 “But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.” (Cf. Ro 2:29; 2Co 3:6. “The letter” is a Paulinism for the law, as “spirit” in these passages is his word for the relationships and powers of new life in Christ Jesus. In 2 Cor. 3. a series is presented of contrast of law with “spirit,” of the old covenant and the new. The contrast is not between two methods of interpretation, literal, and spiritual, but between two methods of divine dealing: one through the law, the other through the Holy Spirit.)
Ro. 7.7-14. “What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet. But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death. For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me. Wherefore the law is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good. Was then that which is good made death unto me? God forbid. But sin, that it might appear sin, working death in me by that which is good; that sin by the commandment might become exceeding sinful.14 For we know that the law is spiritual: but I am carnal, sold under sin.”
Ro. 7.15-25. The strife of the two natures under the law. Romans 7:15-25 “For that which I do I allow not: for what I would, that do I not; but what I hate, that do I. If then I do that which I would not, I consent unto the law that it is good. Now then it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me. For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me; but how to perform that which is good I find not. For the good that I would I do not: but the evil which I would not, that I do. Now if I do that I would not, it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me. I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me. For I delight in the law of God after the inward man: But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members. O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death? I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then with the mind I myself serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin.”
N1 to Ex. 19.25 p95 “The Mosaic Covenant (1) given to Israel (2) in three divisions, each essential to the others, and together forming the Mosaic Covenant, viz.: the Commandments, expressing the righteous will of God (Ex. 20.1-26; the ‘judgments, governing the social life of Israel (Ex. 21.1-24.11); and the ‘ordinances,’ governing the religious life of Israel (Ex. 24.12-31.18). These three elements form ‘the law,’ as that phrase is generically used in the New Testament (e.g. Mt. 5.17, 18). The Commandments and the ordinances formed one religious system. The Commandments were a ‘ministry of condemnation’ and of ‘death’ (2 Cor. 3.7-9); the ordinances gave, in the high priest, a representative of the people with Jehovah; and in the sacrifices a ‘cover’ (see ‘Atonement,’ Lev. 16.6 note) for their sins in anticipation of the Cross (Heb. 5.1-3; 9.6-9; Rom. 3.25, 26). The Christian is not under the conditional Mosaic Covenant of works, the law, but under the unconditional New Covenant of grace (Rom. 3.21-27; 6.14, 15; Gal. 2.16, 3.10-14, 16-18, 24-26; 4.21-31; Heb. 10.11-17). See New Covenant (Heb. 8.8, note).
See De. 4.13, 23 “4.13: And he declared unto you his covenant, which he commanded you to perform, even ten commandments; and he wrote them upon two tables of stone.” “4:23 Take heed unto yourselves, lest ye forget the covenant of the LORD your God, which he made with you, and make you a graven image, or the likeness of any thing, which the LORD thy God hath forbidden thee.”
De. 5- . The new generation taught the Mosaic Covenant.
De. 9:11 “And it came to pass at the end of forty days and forty nights, that the LORD gave me the two tables of stone, even the tables of the covenant.”
De. 9.15 “So I turned and came down from the mount, and the mount burned with fire: and the two tables of the covenant were in my two hands.”
De. 10.8 “At that time the LORD separated the tribe of Levi, to bear the ark of the covenant of the LORD, to stand before the LORD to minister unto him, and to bless in his name, unto this day.”
In Nehemiah 10, Nehemiah, the people, the priests, the Levites, the porters, the singers, the Nethinims, etc. signed a covenant: “Nehemiah 10:28-32 And the rest of the people, the priests, the Levites, the porters, the singers, the Nethinims, and all they that had separated themselves from the people of the lands unto the law of God, their wives, their sons, and their daughters, every one having knowledge, and having understanding; They clave to their brethren, their nobles, and entered into a curse, and into an oath, to walk in God’s law, which was given by Moses the servant of God, and to observe and do all the commandments of the LORD our Lord, and his judgments and his statutes; And that we would not give our daughters unto the people of the land, nor take their daughters for our sons: And if the people of the land bring ware or any victuals on the sabbath day to sell, that we would not buy it of them on the sabbath, or on the holy day: and that we would leave the seventh year, and the exaction of every debt. Also we made ordinances for us, to charge ourselves yearly with the third part of a shekel for the service of the house of our God;”
N1 p1000 to Mt. 5.17 “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.” (Christ’s relation to the law of Moses may be thus summarized: (1) He was made under the law Ga 4:4. (2) He lived in perfect obedience to the law Joh 8:46; Mt 17:5; 1Pe 2:21-23. (3) he was a minister of the law to the Jews, clearing it from rabbinical sophistries, enforcing it in all its pitiless severity upon those who professed to obey it (e.g.) Lu 10:25-37 but confirming the promises made to the fathers under the Mosaic Covenant Ro 15:8. (4) He fulfilled the types of the law by His holy life and sacrificial death Heb 9:11-26. (5) He bore, vicariously, the curse of the law that the Abrahamic Covenant might avail all who believe Ga 3:13-14. (6) He brought out by His redemption all who believe from the place of servants under the law into the place of sons Ga 4:1-7. (7) He mediated by His blood the New Covenant of assurance and grace in which all believers stand Ro 5:2; Heb 8:6-13 so establishing the “law of Christ” Ga 6:2 with its precepts of higher exaltation made possible by the indwelling Spirit.)
II Co. 3.6-18 The ministry: (c) spiritual and glorious—not legal.
II Cor. 3:6, 8, 17, 18 “6 Who also hath made us able ministers of the new testament; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life…. 8 How shall not the ministration of the spirit be rather glorious? … 17- Now the Lord is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty. 18 But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord.” See vv. 6-18.
N2 p1244 to Ga. 3.24 “Galatians 3:24 Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.” (Margin: to bring us Margin: unto 2 law I. The law of Moses, Summary: (1) The Mosaic Covenant was given to Israel in three parts: the commandments, expressing the righteous will of God Ex 20:1-26, the “judgments,” governing the social life of Israel Ex 21:1-24:11, and the “ordinances,” governing the religious life of Israel Ex 24:12; 31:18. (2) The commandments and ordinances were one complete and inseparable whole. When an Israelite sinned, he was held “blameless” if he brought the required offering Lu 1:6; Php 3:6. (3) Law, as a method of the divine dealing with man, characterized the dispensation extending from the giving of the law to the death of Jesus Christ Ga 3:13-14,23-24. (4) The attempt of legalistic teachers (e.g.) Ac 15:1-31; Ga 2:1-5, to mingle law with grace as the divine method for this present dispensation of grace, brought out the true relation of the law to the Christian, viz.
II. The Christian doctrine of the law: (1) Law is in contrast with grace. Under the latter God bestows the righteousness which, under law, He demanded Ex 19:5; Joh 1:17. Cmt. on Ro 3:21. Ro 10:3-10; 1Co 1:30. (2) The law is, in itself, holy, just, good, and spiritual Ro 7:12-14. (3) Before the law the whole world is guilty, and the law is therefore of necessity a ministry of condemnation, death, and the divine curse Ro 3:19; 2Co 3:7-9; Ga 3:10. (4) Christ bore the curse of the law, and redeemed the believer both from the curse and from the dominion of the law Ga 3:13; 4:5-7. (5) Law neither justifies a sinner nor sanctifies a believer Ga 2:16; 3:2-3,11-12. (6) The believer is both dead to the law and redeemed from it, so that he is “not under the law, but under grace” Ro 6:14; 7:4; Ga 2:19; 4:4-7; 1Ti 1:8-9. (7) Under the new covenant of grace the principle of obedience to the divine will is inwrought Heb 10:6. So far is the life of the believer from the anarchy of self-will that he is “inlawed to Christ” 1Co 9:21 and the new “law of Christ” Ga 6:2; 2Jo 1:5 is his delight; while, through the indwelling Spirit, the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in him Ro 8:2-4; Ga 5:16-18. The commandments are used in the distinctively Christian Scriptures as an instruction in righteousness 2Ti 3:16; Ro 13:8-10; Eph 6:1-3; 1Co 9:8-9. Margin: to bring us Omit “to bring us.” Margin: unto up to, or until.)